Some reminders before we dive in: There are three different kinds of comments you can make in these online discussions in order to get the most out of this forum: add something, respond to a classmate, and ask a question that someone else can answer. The most effective comments in this kind of forum are concise, clear, and supported.

This online discussion is open for comments September 10-23. An overview of these assignments and how you’ll be graded is available here.

 


 

Most aspects of music—how it’s made, how it’s consumed, what sounds people prefer, how it’s performed, and how it’s learned—progress in cycles throughout history from being popular/affordable/accessible to being elite/costly/niche and back again. Put another way, aspects of music that were popular in one generation or century are the same features that are considered elite or rare in the next. As cultural norms, wealth, and social needs shift over time, music changes, too. So, the history of music can be an indicator of other broad trends in history, economics, politics, and social structure.

As you read, think about other history courses you’ve taken that help fill in the gaps in this chronological survey. Think, too, about the ways in which this survey reinforces what you’ve learned in school or from reading (literature and non-fiction!) and movies—every piece of information we add helps flesh out your sense of the world and all it contains.

There’s one constant about how music is learned to keep in mind throughout this historical survey. As long as music has existed—and this is true today, as well—people have learned to make music by listening to music that’s already been made and by trying their hand at making music with each other. The skills, techniques, and details of music are passed down directly from an older group of musicians to a younger group.

Ancient Greece and the Medieval period (ca. 12th century BC to 1300)

Medieval manuscript - The Geese Book 1503-10
A manuscript known as “The Geese Book” (1503-10)

For a large portion of European history, the keepers of knowledge were monks and nuns. In between prayers (more on that in class soon!) and chores (e.g., cleaning, feeding animals, farming), a common daily task for men in a monastery or women in a nunnery was creating copies of important texts by hand. These texts included religious treatises, scientific texts, Ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, and music.

The history of how music was learned is also the history of how people thought about music. One of the most important takeaways when thinking about music in the Medieval period is knowing just how important music was in the whole spectrum of human knowledge. The way people thought about education was quite different than it is now, and people divided human knowledge into two groups of related subjects, the quadrivium and the trivium:

 

Trivium (Literary arts) Quadrivium (Mathematical disciplines)
  • Grammar
  • Logic
  • Rhetoric
  • Arithmetic
  • Geometry
  • Astronomy
  • Music

 

Together, all seven subjects constituted a liberal arts education, and mastery of the trivium was required before taking on the quadrivium. Notice where music is placed—it’s of equal importance with math and science. Notice, too, that none of the other fine arts appear anywhere in this list of essential subjects.

Organizing and prioritizing human knowledge in this way is an idea that comes from Ancient Greek philosophy. Here are some examples of how people thought about knowledge and music:

“Music is a science, certainly, in which exists sure and infallible knowledge.” —Aristides Quintilianus, On Music (ca. 130 AD)

“[T]he cosmos is ordered in accord with harmonia (just as the disciples of Pythagoras assert) and we need the musical theorems for the understanding of the whole universe.. [and] certain types of melos [melody, rhythm, and words sung] form the ethos of the soul.” —Sextus Empiricus, Against the Musicians (2nd century)

“Plato said, not idly, that the soul of the universe is united by musical concord [consonance]… [T]he music of the universe is especially to be studied in the combining of the elements and the variety of the seasons which are observed in the heavens. How indeed could the swift mechanism of the sky move silently in its course? And although the sound does not reach our ears, the extremely rapid motion of such great bodies could not be altogether silent, especially since the courses of the stars are joined together by such mutual adaptation that nothing more equally compacted or united could be imagined. For some orbit higher and others lower, and all revolve by a common impulse, so that an established order of their circuits can be deduced from their various inequalities. For this reason an established order of modulation [i.e., music with a mathematical connotation] cannot be lacking in this celestial revolution.” —Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, Fundamentals of Music, Book I (ca. 500), a summary of the works of Nichomachus (60-100) and Ptolemy (100-168)

 

There are many ways that the works of Greek thinkers like Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Epicurus, Euripides, and Socrates continue to shape the world in which we live today—democracy, trial by jury, empirical scientific observations, and public theater all come from Ancient Greece, for example. The very assumption that music is an important thing to study—something that Europeans have believed for thousands of years, long after the quadrivium was abandoned in education, to the point that nearly everyone takes it for granted without knowing where the idea came from—shows how such ideas are tied up in musical behaviors that are passed down over time.

Renaissance, Baroque, and Classical eras (ca. 1300-1800)

Musicians in these periods tended to be born rather than made. That’s not a knock against how hard they worked, just a pithy way of saying that in music, as in most other trades (e.g, blacksmiths, carpenters, farmers), fathers passed their skills directly to their children by teaching them to follow in their footsteps, and most education took place in the home. Most of the “big name” composers we’ll come across in class learned their craft or at least began their studies with their fathers at an early age (around 3 or 4 years old), who were themselves musicians who had learned from their fathers, who had learned from their fathers… Johann Sebastian Bach, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven (more on Beethoven in an upcoming online discussion!) all came from families of musicians and began their studies at an early age with their fathers. They heard excellent music making happening right in front of them from their infancy and reinforced what they saw with ongoing lessons in playing (usually keyboard, violin, and singing) and composition.

An important distinction of the post-Medieval era is that knowledge was more widely available beyond the monastery and the nunnery. Major universities were established in the Medieval period that grew in the Renaissance and beyond (Bologna, 1088; Oxford, 1096; Salamanca, 1134; Cambridge, 1209; Padua, 1222; Naples, 1224; Sorbonne, 1150). The invention of a printing press with movable type by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century facilitated the spread of knowledge, too. Both of these developments help support the general cultural trend towards making education fashionable—because book learning had been so rare previously, it was a mark of refinement, wealth, and quality at this point in time to be well-educated, and people who could afford to do so sought out education and ways to demonstrate their erudition.

On the musical side, there was a flowering of new treatises (rather than just copying ancient ones) written and published about music: its history, music theory, how to make music socially, how to play various instruments, and how to compose. Here’s a small but representative sample, with links to original texts wherever possible:

  • Baldassare di Castiglione, Il libro del cortegiano (Book of the Courtesan, 1528)
  • Antonfrancesco Doni, Dialogo della musica (Dialogue on music, 1544)
  • Pontus de Tyard, Solitaire premier ou prose des Muses & de la fureur poétique (First Solitaire or Prose on the Muses and Poetic Furor, 1552)
  • Gioseffo Zarlino, Istitutioni harmoniche (Harmonic Institutions, 1558)
  • Henry Peacham, “The Compleat Gentleman” (1622)
  • Johann Joseph Fux, Gradus ad parnassum (1725)
  • Johann Mattheson, Der vollkommene Capellmeister (The Perfect Music Director, 1739)
  • Johann Joachim Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen (Essay on Playing the Flute, 1752)
  • Joseph Riepel, “Fundamentals of Musical Composition” (1752)
  • Carl Philip Emmanuel Bach, Versuch über die wahre Art, das Clavier zu spielen (Essay on the Proper Manner of Playing A Keyboard Instrument, 1753)
  • Leopold Mozart, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule (A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing, 1756)
  • Georg Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste (General Theory of the Fine Arts, 1771-74)
  • Johann Philipp Kirnberger, “The Art of Strict Musical Composition,” (1776)
  • Johann Nikolaus Forkel, Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik (A General History of Music, 1788-1801)
  • Heinrich Christoph Koch, Versuch einer Anleitung zur Composition (Introductory Essay on Composition, 1782-93)

Music literacy—the ability to read music that is notated on a page—is central to the way classical music is taught from the Baroque era onwards. Musical notation allows musicians to share music with people who aren’t physically in front of them and to learn much more music than a single person can reasonably memorize in one lifetime. Here’s a brief video introduction to music notation:

Finally, another important method for learning music emerged in the Baroque era: conservatories. A conservatorio (for boys) or an ospedale (for girls) in Italy was an orphanage.

ospedale della pieta
Ospedale della Pietà, Venice, Italy

A conservatory’s main task was to train parent-less children in music. This may seem odd: Why teach an orphan to play violin when they don’t even have a home? But let’s take everything we’ve learned so far about the history of music into account: (1) There’s a long-standing assumption that music is crucial to making a complete human being (from the Ancient Greeks); and (2) People who have musical training are considered cultured and valuable (because it was was rare to have access to it). Given that, it’s pretty clear why people caring for orphans—children who have nothing, no money, no land, no dowry—would give those children some cultural capital in the form of musical training. Even a child with no family has something to offer if they can make music. For boys, that meant the potential to make a living—the fact that they didn’t have a father to teach them was no longer an impediment to success. For girls, this typically meant that they became marriageable—the fact that they could make beautiful music made them more attractive to a potential (rich) husband (more on this idea in another upcoming online discussion!).

Romantic Era (basically the 19th century)

The goal of most music education in the Renaissance, Baroque, and Classical eras was becoming a competent professional musician: someone whose entire career revolves around music making in many ways (composing, performing, playing multiple instruments, teaching, and writing about music). The most important shift that happens in the Romantic era is an increase in amateur music making: doing it for fun rather than for money.

(Hey, this is one of those cycle things again! Music has always been made for fun, but the people doing that in the Renaissance, Baroque, and Classical eras were members of the nobility and aristocracy. In the 19th century, people who didn’t have titles like “King” or “Duke” are able to make music, too—what had been elite becomes common.)

A common pastime in 19th-century Europe was making music at home—singing songs or playing chamber music with the family to pass the evening, playing for guests to entertain them (and to show off!), and keeping female children busy. People would learn to play an instrument and read music by hiring a professional musician to be their private teacher.

Jan Vermeer - The Music Lesson 1665
Johannes Vermeer, The Music Lesson (1662-65)

 

University-level music appreciation classes—just like this class you’re taking right now!—first appeared in the 19th century in Germany. This tells us some important things about the cultural landscape of the 19th century: (1) People still thought that music was really important (those Greek ideals aren’t going away!), (2) But not everyone felt like they understood music as well as they should (and they wanted to remedy that situation by studying), and (3) Music was becoming more complex, and the kind of music being composed at the time was harder to understand just by hearing it once without some amount of training or background information.

Education of professional musicians was different; it didn’t take place in the home or in a university. People who showed particular musical talent at an early age in the 19th century didn’t study music with their fathers—middle class parents in the Romantic era were more likely to be teachers, government officials, or lawyers than musicians. Instead, they sent their children to the local (or regional) conservatory.

Wait a minute! Weren’t conservatories just orphanages with musical training? Yes, originally (see above), but once people realized how effective musical training could be if you kept kids captive and immersed in music education, they started choosing to have conservatories take their children and train them professionally. The major music conservatories in Europe that are still active today were established in the early 19th century:

  • Paris, 1795
  • Bologna, 1804
  • Milan, 1807
  • Florence, 1811
  • Prague, 1811
  • Warsaw, 1821
  • Vienna, 1821
  • Royal Academy of Music in London, 1822
  • The Hague, 1826
  • Liège, 1827

Children would typically enter the conservatory between the ages of 5 and 15 and study music there exclusively—no literature, no math, no science—and intensively for 10-15 years. They’d become proficient in all the skills necessary to make music at the highest level: composition, counterpoint, performance, sight singing, and conducting. Many of the “big name” composers you’ll come across in the 19th and 20th centuries were conservatory-trained: Hector Berlioz, Claude Debussy, Gustav Mahler, Maurice Ravel, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

But what about the US? Even though the United States declared independence from Great Britain in 1776, much of American culture was still tied to or imitated European culture. This included the assumption that having musical knowledge was crucial for a person to be fully educated and worldly. The US didn’t have the same long-standing music education tradition that Europe did, and the major US conservatories and music schools were established quite a bit later than their European counterparts:

  • The Peabody Institute at Johns Hopkins University, 1857
  • Oberlin Conservatory of Music, 1865
  • New England Conservatory, 1867
  • Boston Conservatory, 1867
  • Yale School of Music, 1894
  • The Juilliard School, 1905
  • San Francisco Conservatory of Music, 1917
  • Manhattan School of Music, 1917
  • Cleveland Institute of Music, 1920
  • Eastman School of Music, 1921
  • The Curtis Institute of Music, 1924
  • The Colburn School, 1950
Fry, William Henry
William Henry Fry, American composer, music critic, and educator

Without the same quality of musical training available, American orchestras and opera companies often weren’t as proficient as their European counterparts, and audiences weren’t as culturally savvy. Some American musicians experienced a fair amount of culture-envy or cultural inadequacy when they compared music making in America to the institutions of Europe. For example, one such musician, William Henry Fry (1813-64), staged a series of lengthy, dense public lectures in New York City in 1853 in a feverish attempt to bring the uncultured (or so he thought) American public up to speed with the European standard-makers. Notice that his lectures precede the establishment of any conservatories in the US—other people clearly felt the same pressure and put their efforts into institutional education.

Fry lecture 1853 NYT
An excerpt from a New York Times article in 1853 describing one of Fry’s public lectures on the history of music

 

The 20th century

The 19th-century trend of home music making (by amateurs for fun) was widespread—to the point that most middle-class families had a piano in their living room and at least one family member could play it reasonably well—until the Great Depression (1929-39). In the 20th century we again run up against another one of those social cycles: classical music making had become so common, and seemed so associated with “old people” (like parents and grandparents), that it stopped being fashionable. What was fashionable was popular music—jazz, rock, disco, hip-hop, or pop, depending on the decade in question.

On top of that, the classical music made by those conservatory-trained professional musicians (who immersed themselves in all the techniques, skills, and history of music from an early age) was generally becoming even less accessible to the average listener. As an example of music from a conservatory-trained musician that is difficult for many new listeners, here’s Pierre Boulez’s Structures I (1952) and II (1962):

 

All of this means that the way music is learned in the 20th century is a more extreme version of trends that had already taken root in previous eras: (1) Professional classical musicians were trained intensively, often from an early age, in a style of music that was becoming less and less popular; (2) People who could afford it studied music privately in their homes (because they were continuing that Ancient Greek assumption that there’s value in music study!); (3) Hands-on music making generally became less and less prevalent (consider that even garage bands, with self-taught teenagers playing guitars, drums, and bass, are significantly less popular now than they were 20 years ago—just a single generation); and (4) The majority of the public only listened to music rather than playing it themselves, and increasingly they only listened to music that was recorded rather than played live. An oversimplified—and contentious!—description of the way music is learned today would suggest that there is a class of people who are trained to do the music making for everyone else.

There are exceptions to all historical trends, so here I’d like to provide another approach to music education from the 20th century. The poster below hung in the New York City dance studio of choreographer Merce Cunningham in the 1960s consisting of rules for teachers and students, compiled by educator Sister Corita Kent in 1967-68 and partly inspired by composer John Cage. These rules (although the word “rules” here is used ironically, since the ideas they contain are so broad as to defy the formula of typical rules that must be followed) are an effort in one corner of the art world to buck against the rigidity of the conservatory tradition and the notion of top-down learning (i.e., from professional veterans to their disciples). Cage and his partner Cunningham used these rules as a way to create a learning environment in which they and their students were encouraged to grow, explore and create freely:

cage_merce_corita_rules-thumb-600x762-13868

 

Final thoughts

The question of “How is music learned?” is simplistic but not simple—the answer depends on when in history we’re talking about and who we’re talking about. The common thread in all of these music education methods is that effective learning involves meaningful and constant exposure to people who already make music at a high level, accompanied by rigorous, systematic training in many aspects of music making (e.g., multiple instruments, composition, performance). This should remind you of our last online discussion—even though historical music professionals didn’t know the neuroscience of training one’s brain, through thousands of years of passing music down people developed methods that reinforce neural pathways!

-Dr. J.

 

Some questions to get the conversation going

It’s most effective in an online forum like this to pick one idea at a time to respond to in a single comment, rather than combining several different ideas into one comment. And, these are just a way to get started—the best online discussions branch out into surprising new topics!

  • What would be your preferred way to study music of all the methods described?
  • What would happen if you adopted the Kent/Cage/Cunningham rules in your own life?
  • What kinds of music making/learning does this survey omit or leave out? Why do you think they’re not included here?
  • Why might knowing the history of how a subject has been taught be helpful?
  • How are your own educational experiences similar or dissimilar to the ways in which music has been taught?

124 thoughts on “Musical educations and the education of music

  1. Wow! Reading this article opened my mind to see the level of importance music had throughout the year. I studied the ancient greece civilization in history and was interested on how they started to see the value of learning music. Also how throughout the years they started to study more into it and teaching it to their children and saw the impact it has on history. Just like books during the Great Depression were important music played apart of it before and after the event.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I learned to be one, I was inspired by many guitarists to become one and later on soon to make my own music. I started learning at the age of 15 but I wished I would’ve learned earlier.

      Liked by 1 person

    2. definitely a learned one. Sometimes i feel like i don’t have any talent, but when it comes to music I feel like i can atleast play the drums lol

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    3. I am a learned one. I started in kindergarten with the piano and eventually added on the alto saxophone in middle school and found both to be my passion.

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    4. I believe that you can be either both or one them at least. I believe that some people are not necessarily destined, but born with something that can attract or help them be say a musician. people also can become musicians if they learn and study the art hard. So, yes, there is natural-born musicians, and also those who learned it.

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  2. what makes you become a musician, besides the fact you like the music?
    Also, how can you know about the aspects of music when your young if you really don’t think about it ?

    Liked by 2 people

    1. It could be that they were naturally adapt to musical hearing. Like a vocalist can know she or he can sing and is a musician after knowing how to harmonize and imitate pitches correctly without any prior training or knowledge. When someone is young and realizes that they have a musical ability, they start thinking about it then. Great question!

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    2. People can became musician sometimes when they are going through bad financial status and they decided to be a musician to make a lot of money or to became famous and rich.I know these kind of people they are very few but they do exist.

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  3. This article was very important to read as it explained the history of music as a whole and how it evolved overtime. From the Ancient Greece and Medieval period to the 20th Century, music has truly transformed and it is shown that everybody can learn the value of music even if you’re a child. Teaching the importance of music to a child can also have a huge impact on their life because music can play a role with emotions and how you convey your feelings.

    Liked by 4 people

    1. There was actually a study that children who learn to study music and play music turn out to have higher IQs then children who don’t! I agree with you a hundred percent

      Liked by 1 person

    2. I totally agree! This surely happened to me. I can express my feelings through a playlist and I have quite the library haha.

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  4. WOW..this is like one of best article I have read about music and i don’t have much knowledge in music theory but reading this article opened my mind learned a lot about music history.

    Liked by 3 people

    1. I agree ! Iguess playing music and knowing the whole theory behind is different but it’s amazing to learn the background of music and how it has evolved through out centuries to be the type of music we listen today.

      Liked by 1 person

    2. you and I are certainly on the right page. the article brought to attention things that I was not aware of when it came to music theory and history.

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  5. Reading this article made me open up my mind more on the history of music. In the article it’s mentions that music has changed overtime and definitely agree. I love music also and I’m not afraid to listen to different genres. I also agree with Raphaelirizarry, when teaching a child music, because music does have an effect on your emotions, and children are young and they do pay attention and act accordingly to different kinds of music.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I agree with you! Even though I am alittle skeptical about listening to various genres, I really enjoy music. Raphaelirizarry made a great point, that I dont think much of us realize. Children are able to listen to music and relate it to something else causing their behavior to change. For example when they hear theme songs to hereo’s or villan’s they automatically remember who’s it for & tend to act like them.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. I say, children aren’t the only ones affected by music, though, they’re probably the most susceptible considering their “innocence” (that and they just don’t know any better).
        People of all ages act / react respectively to the kind of music they hear–Joy for an upbeat and light melody or sad to a slow/deeper tune, etc.
        In this century music is accessible everywhere unlike years ago. Back then one needed to have a mentor or active source of musical knowledge bestowed upon them, but now it’s possible to “self-teach” because the equipment is affordable and accessible to the public.
        Two musical artists that made it big without proper schooling – Jimi Hendrix – Played Guitar and is left handed and Dave Grohl who claims he never took a music lesson before.

        Liked by 3 people

  6. After discussing in class, stereotypes about classical music this surprised me. Reading that classical muisc became unfashionable honestly made me laugh. Jazz, Hip Hop & more were popular after being seen as rucus instead of “music”. Each century followed with a new idea on music.

    Liked by 2 people

  7. i definitely agree with you, this article did explain the history of music as well as how it developed. I believe that teaching music to a child at a young age is a very essential part of life because, it might actually create a musician. Just like in the article says, most of the big named composers started at the age of 3 & 4, so teaching music to a child at a young age allows them to express themselves in ways that they might not be able to using words or actions. Music has definitely changed throughout the centuries and it has a lot to do with our generations. We adapt to a society and tend to latch on to the things everyone does or in this case listens to. Even though for some that may not be the case, for most it is, and this shows how the generations have a lot to do with music changing throughout the centuries.

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    1. Absolutely! Also, most of the musicians that did start playing music at a young age, I think, had a craving for it or genuinely enjoyed learning about new instruments and how to play them. It makes you wonder why some people had that craving for music, right? Some parents will play music constantly for their newborns or even place headphones against themselves to play music for their unborn babies. And most of those babies grow up playing multiple Instruments, always craving to learn more. It’s an interesting concept, it really makes you think!

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  8. After reading the article knowing the history of music, especially classical music can be helpful so you don’t judge the music based on stereotypes and find out that some of these types of music were appreciated by older generations.

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  9. I agree, after reading this article, I can see that music has such a huge impact throughout the years. I found it fascinating reading how music was developed, and the history behind it. Throughout the years music does change within generations. I feel like its really important to teach young kids music, I work with kids and my major is early childhood education, I believe teaching young kids about music is essential one day in their future, for an example they can become a musician.

    Liked by 1 person

  10. After obtaining background knowledge about the various studies of music I would actually still choose the 20th century’s technique because it seems more creative. Not necessarily saying that any other study of music is any less creative but has a more strict curriculum. For example, in the 20th century study: if you want a pot’s top to be your cymbals you’re free to do so. In the classical era the choices for instruments seemed more refined (Violin, Keyboard, and singing).
    Using the Kent/Cage/Cunningham rules in your own life would probably more structuized and organized. I would be able to focus without distractions. Obtaining the knowledge of history on how a subject has been taught might be helpful because it gives the person background information on the topic so that they have a starting point. For instance, I might not know about photography however after learning the history I can decide what I’d like to do with the information taught (utilize it, let it rot? My choice!). More over, my personal educational experiences are similar to the way music is taught because like my schooling you started somewhere (Pre-K) you learn how to write, possibly read and possibly even add small numbers. As your years in school advance, a trend begins to develop. You use the skills you learn in pre-k like writing to write an essay in 5th grade. Your skills have just developed overtime. This is the same with music it started simple and as time progressed the skill began to improve but also repeat its initial skills learned in the topic.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. @cbrodwith I have a question, could your choice in 20th century music be bias based on you actually living in this century? Some people state good music is actually dying and nonsense is what is now considered “good music” .
      Hip hop artist cassidy stated in a post ” if u keep getting fed bad food, you’ll get addicted & start to crave it. If u keep hearing bad music same shit!” What is your opinion on that statement?

      Liked by 1 person

      1. That’s a great question and I’m not sure if I know how to answer it but I’m going to give it my best shot lol. I say that this can go two ways, mostly yes because In class Dr. Jones stated something very important regarding this topic. Unfortunately I do not know it word for word, but it goes along the lines of “When encountering something you don’t know, It might not be necessarily that you don’t like it but it may be that you are uneducated on the topic” so in my words it takes time to get used to things, allow your mind to condition to the situation and see if it is able to adapt. For an example, someone who is unfit and inactive might see exercising as a chore, burden, or punishment. However after their body adapts to being physically active and engaging in physical fitness they are more tolerant and may eventually turn that dislike to love. Maybe because they were unaware how great they would feel each day and over time after working out so they neglected the thought of even accepting excerise MAKING it unenjoyable.

        Humans are great adapters and I think that plays a big role in our culture and choices made regarding everyday life. As humans our brains can function in many different environments. I believe our minds can adapt to a certain sound/genre of music and then eventually normalize it in your cultural choice of music. However, I also feel like the individuals initial reaction to the music is important. This is because if he/she hears the genre and their initial reaction was impressed by the sound/genre then more then likely your mind is already conditioned to that genre/era of music and would deem Cassidy’s statement Incorrect.However if your initial reaction when listening to it was a non engaged reaction, but after a few listens you end up loving the song or genre then Cassidy’s statement would be undeniably correct.
        …But then again who’s to say the “feeding of the bs” isn’t generational and that’s how the youth gets conditioned to the newer era of “garbage” music. Sorry for the essay. It was a lot to break down.

        Liked by 1 person

  11. I enjoyed this article, as it teaches you about the history of music and how it impacted back then social classes, how music could determine marriage options.
    I especially like when the institutions started teaching the orphans music to help their future.

    Liked by 2 people

    1. Yes, I enjoyed the part about the orphans brought a gloomy yet uplifting mood to the section about the baroque period. That was a very efficient way to relay a message (grad the readers emotions and throw valuable information in the mix with it). Great point!

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  12. Reading that article really opened my eyes to how important music is. I always believed that music was just for enjoyment and for people to make a career out of it. I didn’t know that music went through generations of people that led to the 21 century of music. Music really helped people a lot back I the days. I also believe that teaching the young ones about the origin of music will help them truly understand music and really listen to it.

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    1. I agree that this article has made me realize how important music is. It is a way of expression throughout the different generations. It was a way to experience and learn something outside the norm.

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    1. Music for me always depends on my feelings how i fell will let me chose that kind of music and I think that thing is with mostly people. Recently I came to know about meditation I don’t do meditation but I like the music they play which is very relaxing to me so whenever I have a work load and has tension for that I listens that music.

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    2. I listen to music based on my mood. My favorite genre is pop music but I can switch to country in a heartbeat if my mood changes. I’m never stuck on a specific genre because I lose interest listening to the same songs over and over again. Different situations can also spark me to listen to different type of music. For example, I could be watching a video and all of a sudden, I find myself searching up Korean music, Chinese music and sometimes even Hispanic music. I can literally just sit there and not understand a word but would want to continue listening to it because the beat itself is catchy. But if I had to choose, it would be pop music.

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    3. my music taste varies. I can listen to country, trap, rap, jazz, classical, r&b and the list continues. For me, any piece of music that has lets say a certain off note or the beat isn’t a regular one is a vibe. I appreciate all types of music

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    4. My go to music is definitely rock, but not the hard core rock, but i do listen to different genres from time to time. Rock for the most part is just different compared to other genres in my opinion.

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  13. Great article! By reading this article I am curious to know about history of music in Asia which is great and if somebody knows please let me know. The thing I think may be everybody knows or not is that when mother is in her third trimester fetus in her womb started to recognize different piches and rhythms.If mother listen songs the fetus will hear it and when baby is born he or she not only will recognize the music but also will like it. I wrote a whole essay on this topic when I was in high school and by research I came to know that stuff but this information was very interesting to me. By learning music with science is more interesting to me because I love science and music and both makes amazing combination. The thing that music is good for children I think that makes them happy by knowing that they know music since they were in womb of their mother.

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  14. This article is interesting. I learnt how music has impacted people over the centuries. I was positively surprised that in ancient Greece, great thinkers associated music with science. At the same time it makes sense to me because of what I learnt from the previous article. I think knowing how a subject has been taught allows us to build, and if necessary, also to change upon a secure foundation. Music has evolved from century to century because the way its was taught, was learnt by the younger generation.

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  15. Sadly, no one in my family taught me about music; I’m muslim so you’re not even allowed to listen to music. I started listening to music at the age of 8, I use to watch MTV and then switch from the channel when ever my dad or mom walked in, Lol. As I slowly started learning about music I learned that it comes in almost every genre, and every race. WHEREEVER you go there’s music. and to this day i’m learning the behind it, this article really made me think more about different types of music and how it evolved, and I didn’t know music was a big impact on the great depression days! Interesting! I’m going to read more into it and do my own research.

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  16. This was a very informative post that really put a lot of things in perspective for me. Music was always important in my family because instruments were played in the church and we learned a little bit about each and appreciated the sound of the instruments. It is true that 21st century music, you can say that the beat-masters who sample music from different genre and apply percussive sounds are the Beethovens of this generation.

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    1. I think adopting the Kent/Cage/Cunningham rules in my own life would definitely impact my life in a positive way. These rules were intended for teachers and students, and that’s great for my case since i’m in college and I have some incredibly challeneging class. Rule #2 said “Pull everything out of your teacher, Pull everything out of your fellow students” what this rule is saying tome is that instead of walking out of class not understanding a certain topic Ask questions, challenge my professor or even seek help from a classmate. so I think having these rules as a part of my life could really mean something good, if I use them in the correct way.

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  17. Throughout time you can see in these articles that the different types of music describe and show us that some people were taught about music at an early age and other just listened to the different types of music they were exposed to. I have listened to music since I was very young and there are different types of music for one to experience. The older generations enjoy listening to classical, jazz and music of the different eras. The younger people today enjoy rap, urban and trap music. Music sounds change throughout the years. Music has played a big part in our history and has always been a way of people expressing themselves through their verses.

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  18. It’s interesting to know that in the article above explains that conservatories were known as orphanages in the 1700’s. Today conservatories are schools where people can study music and earn a degree. Music was taught to children in orphanages and they began to develop skills throughout the years they have been in these conservatory’s. This goes to show that music was taught regardless of a persons financial state. Our most famous musicians came from conservatory’s. Some were taught music while others are learning it through their parents. Music has become an art that will always be recognizable throughout our history. Our history of music proves that as time goes by people will learn to play music differently no matter what financial state or age a person is.

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  19. reading this article help me understand the importance of music through time on how important it was to learn to define oneself in the ancient Greeks and slowly over time leading away to create one’s own music or not playing at all and just listening. now a days it is very different when it comes to music for example before learning music was a mandatory to learn for a specific reason ( depending what era we are looking at ), but now instead of having to learn to play and instrument, was replaced by just listening and have an open mind through your own feelings. my main point was that we came from playing music in the old days to show our inner emotions and purpose to now listening to music becoming more aware on how we feel and use oit as a guide.

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  20. The history of how music was taught is certainly very interesting. It is clear that there has been a drastic change in not only what is popular music, but music’s values and education as well. We are informed by the article that being able to understand music was once seen as a symbol of literacy and high-level education—which can be correlated to wealth and class. We are also told that this is no longer the case and such a view on music is, for lack of a better word, niche. The pattern of something exclusive for the rich and educated becoming easily accessible for the common mass is a trend that has affected not only music, but many other fields as well. That is why it is impressive to see that even in the 20th century, a new approach to music education was formulated. The Kent/Cage/Cunningham rules aim to help students become the best they can be by utilizing all the resources around them such as their teacher, classmates, and peers. The rules also encourage self-worthiness and growth by promoting subjects like failure, hard-work, and self discipline. These set of rules, as mentioned, are so broad that it can be used in many different areas of life. By adopting the Kent/Cage/Cunningham rules, one can apply them to anything they’re look to learn. An example of this would be in a classroom setting where ideally a student would carefully listen to the thoughts of his classmates and professor, play the devil’s advocate and question things that challenges his/her own beliefs, and devote themselves to what the class has to offer.

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    1. On the money! New things tend to be only accessible to the privileged and then as it ages, it trickles down to commoners as it’s not as new and exclusive.

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  21. This article opened my eyes to how music was taught throughout history, I’m fascinated by retrospective mindsets and dedication of past families who had to teach every generation of kids music so they are brilliant as adults. Also how even orphans dedicated their life from a young age to become musicians to make a living vs now of how we pick up music by hearing it on the radio. The devotion of families back then astonishes me and how they were affected by Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophies and beliefs from Medieval times to the 19th Century and even today. The long history of music and how music nurtured some of the world most brilliant Musicians such as Mozart, Bach and Beethoven by their families makes me want to teach my own kids in the future of music theory and instruments.

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  22. I know that music is a “universal language” in the sense that it’s shared by many cultures across the world and has been around for centuries. But, in response to reading this piece, I was amazed; learning about the history of music and how much it has been valued back then. What stood out to me most was the fact that music was handed down from generation to generation just like other traditions. It became so embedded in culture that it’s been deemed necessary for human beings; so much so that people sent their kids to orphanages to learn music; some went to a university to study music (disregarding most other subjects); while others hired professional musicians to be their private teachers. With the introduction of the printing press and music notation music has become even more accessible for people to learn. I know writing and reading were things only the upper class was priviledged to do years ago … but music was somewhat seen in that light; it was associated with the rich/elite at one point before it became commonly accessible. Very interesting!!! The value which has been attached to music sustained throughout the years  – people today still have a great appreciation for music. I can tell because of the way it has evolved. To me, this somewhat justifies why the music industry today is so lucrative.

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  23. After reading this article on music history. It can open ones mind to different type of genres of music. Also, It gets very into detail explaining the development of music and how back then the monks would say music is a essential subject. This can even applying to today’s era. They say Music would be on the same level as math as well, it too is a important subject. Music in its own is a language. This language is universal as “jenellegooding” said. I agree on this statement. In fact, music can be a language that brings us all together when there a time in need for each other’s help with a harific situation is going on.

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  24. Question: Do you think our generation of children would find Hands-on music like garage bands entertaining if there wasn’t a Drake or Nicki Minaj or Post Malone?

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    1. I think so. While people do idolize such artists like you mentioned, people would want to aspire to those artists and want to be like them, hence create hands-on music and surely receive an audience.

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    2. Oh! What a great question… I actually don’t think it would be as popular. It is human nature to idolize someone and to want to be like them. Without such strong pop-culture like Drake, Nicki MInaj, Post Malone, etc. I think that people our age and those now being born into this would even begin to try to be like someone else.

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    3. I mean….I personally believe that they would still be interested in it because they’d probably see it as a hobby or as something fun to do. I know I would!

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    4. If there weren’t any type of entertaining artist then i think our generation of children would create their own music with everyone being so creative these days.

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    5. I don’t think they would be as interested due to the fact that artist today kind of set a standard as to what people should be listening because of society dictating what music we should listen to.

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  25. It’s incredible to learn that music at one point in time was considered a luxury and only the privileged had access to its beauty. It’s hard to believe especially since music is so intertwined with our lives and society that we take it for granted more often than not.

    I wish I had classical musical training as an adolescent because it wasn’t the easiest thing to do when I was growing up in elementary and middle school choirs then in a performing arts high school. I pretty much had to unlearn my ability to sing and start over with different techniques which definitely helped me improve, but it could be hard (ie. Sight singing).

    Reading this article taught me to be more grateful for the musical resources we have today and to really take advantage of this class since I personally want to pursue vocal performance on a professional level. It’s ironic that I will be majoring in finance since I’m really strong in math and both music and math are under the quadrivium disciplines. Despite musicians being “born rather than made” in the Renaissance, Baroque, and Classical eras, I think I was born to be a musician in the 21st century. 🙂 I hope to one day be able to create music that is new and develop techniques that were never introduced or at least have my own spin on it, preferably for personal pleasure.

    Basically, music is much more than a subject or something for leisure. It is a lifestyle, it’s a form if expression that has been ingrained in us since the beginning of our creation and there is still much more to learn and new ways to create music. I really wonder what textbooks would say about our musical era in the future. (If textbooks still exist lol.) How do y’all think they would define our music?

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    1. Haha if textbooks still exist, authors would probably emphasize on how big the musical industry has grown compared to previous centuries. Younger generation would eventually find and learn music on YouTube. I believe our musical era would be define as digital, because most of the sells are done online, CDs are almost not produced. Great question though.

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      1. Great point. Music is definitely more digital than ever now. Even our education can be accessed and learned through online platforms.

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  26. I actually was so unaware of how many people in the 19th century owned pianos. Especially knowing that they were middle class folks. It seems almost so polar opposite of how it was prior to that time. Reflecting that we spoke about how we think of classical music being “stuffy” or “for the rich.”

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  27. To address one of the questions posed in the discussion, I believe knowing the history of how a subject has been taught will help to develop a greater understanding  and appreciation for the art/subject. I think the more you know, the more you’d be open to learning. History allows you to think back to and place yourself in a particular moment/place. It helps you to envision and imagine more about the art/music; and to boost expression and creativity. It’s important to know your history also; as the saying goes you can’t know where you are heading if you don’t know where you came from. And so that can be applied to music too, it creates a sort of foundation and background for you to build upon. It will also help you to  identify trends and changes over time, and to make comparisons.

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  28. Music is one of those things that make us feel a little less alone in the world, I like listening to music, music can make us feel uplifted, contented and can improve our health too. This artical explained the history of music that something I never learned.

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  29. To answer one of the questions, I think that knowing the story of a subject can be important, for example knowing the history of music can help you understand the composer’s state of mind, the social forces acting during the period considered, the actors of the musical life in a given city, region, country and at a specific moment, the dominant ideas, including the aesthetic conceptions, characteristic of this period and the knowledge of the past is essential to establish continuity in the identity of a people, an individual, a nation.

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    1. You are right there is a connection between music and the era it is in. Reading the article I can see the evolution of music, from classical composition with live sounds using strings, wind and percussion instruments.
      In the modern era of the 21st century musical instruments have been replaced by electronic musical instruments.

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  30. Questions: Do you think composer of our generations are less talented than those before? and also has the music developed with our generations?

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    1. I made an answer to your question after the post below. I’ll reply to my comment so you know which one just in case lol.

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    2. Music is constantly changing. I feel like compared to older generations with modern music there is definitely still some talent its just in another form. Just like 20 years ago so to speak there were simplistic music choices and complex forms of music just like today. However music is a business and artists from today pump out music as quick as possible and it may appeal to an audience sometimes. It also seems like the popular music from today rely heavily on technology which makes it a different sound from back then. There are still some talented artists right now much like there were back then and vise versa with untalented.

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  31. Music was a very important aspect in the lives of the Greeks and Romans. How have the birth of Christianity and the fall of Rome (the ancient world) influenced the evolution of Western music?

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  32. No, I don’t think composers of our time are any less talent. Of course, those who created and adapted musical notation are brilliant people, but talent is more about what you can do with composition. I’m sure there are new musical techniques emerging in today’s music. Remember, our perception of music changes through generations, so what someone may have composed yesterday that one would say is not “music” may very well be “music” today. Second, music has developed greatly in the past centuries. Currently, we are using more electronically-made sounds and using digital music (as @fadell88 mentioned).

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  33. Thinking about it, it amazes me to see how much musical education has evolved over the course of time. It all began with children being taught by their fathers. Musical education has evolved so much now that vast majority of our education comes from Youtube videos or a class period of Music class. In the Baroque period, musical education sounded like it was of high importance for children to learn about music. Later, in the 19th century, children were then sent to conservatories, which at first were for orphans, but then was used for children from ages 5-15. I personally believe that this was better for children to learn much easier and quicker. The children were exposed to hands on teachings for long periods of time. I can imagine sending my young child to a conservatory for them to learn about music! Now, our musical education is merely a music class for a short period of time. If we were to compare our current time to that of the uprising of music, it’s be completely different. Musical education was sought to be a must-have hobby.

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    1. I would think maybe because the demands for different types of music depending on the eras have changed, so schools and music education has changed.

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    2. Musical education has changed for the better. In musical eras like the pass like the Baroque period, teachers teach children about music and also in the past it’s usually a family member that introduce kids to music. Nowadays in the 21-century kids have lots of ways to get familiar with music. For example tv, educational cartoons, youtube and much. People don’t have to settle for only the basic knowledge of music, if you want to know a lot more about music or musical eras there is always the internet.

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  34. After reading this article, I learned how music started in history in Renaissance. Famous composer such as ” Johann Sebastian Bach, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven” had a great opportunity to listen to great music since they were young. Those musicians learned music in very early age who their father is also a musician. I have a similar experience when I was a little kid. My mom used to play a piano in church. I listen to her playing piano almost everyday at home when she is practicing it for church services. I got interested in playing piano. she taught me about 3 years to 4 years of playing piano. I really enjoyed it but I ended up stop playing piano. The biggest reason that I quitted playing piano was I just got bored of playing it. I wish I didn’t quit at young age. I still listen to her playing it but It doesn’t make me feel interested anymore sadly.

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  35. It was very interesting to read how music throughout history shaped the world and people’s lives. so which type of way should musicians study music?

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    1. It would depend on what type of music they’re studying. Composers don’t necessarily need instrumental or voice training to compose musical works. Also, everyone has different ways that they learn better like us in school. Some of us learn better with visual aids, auditory aids and etc.

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  36. This article is very helpful telling us about the history of music. Music is as important as math and science. When listening to different types of music, I can express myself by dancing.

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  37. From one of the topic questions listed above, knowing the history of how something is taught could very in fact be helpful to a high extent. Knowing the history of how something is taught allows you to dictate which form of evolutionary learning traits could be applicable to how you learn individually. It shows us easier ways to learn something as well as how we might learn differently from one another. Learning about music and the history about how its taught provides indication of how music evolves and how we can distinguish it from others in a more easier fashion.

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  38. Have you ever compared reading a sheet of music to learning a new language? There are Symbols you may not be familiar with, some are taught by their parents, and the best way to learn would just be to practice it.

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  39. Such a great article! I learn the history of music, and I think Merce Cunningham’s 10 rules are very useful for people. Rule 5: be self disciplined, this means finding someone wise or smart and choosing to follow them; this is true for everyone I believe we learn something from each other. Music was a most important subject in Renaissance , Baroque eras and 19th Century. Children learned music at age 3 or 4, and music was a basic skill for parent-less children. I believe music is good for children’s brains (the article music and brain from last week), but I think it depends on their parents, schools or communities support them. Music becomes hobby, less important skills, and it is not basic skills for people in today society.

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  40. Question: Some people became addicted to music they listen to music all the time even during cooking ,when they are in bathroom and they listen music during their work as well what makes people addicted to music?

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      1. I think that is so true because i see myself doing exactly that at home. My mom have radio in almost all the room where it on a different channel each playing different type of music and we can not take them off not to say we are musicians we just love music

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  41. This was a great article. I was most impressed on how the article related music to great philosopher’s like Plato and Aristotle. I was also surprised that music was put in the same lane as mathematics. I still wonder why it was not under literally arts because music is more like another language than a math equation.

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  42. When the article brought up Quadrivium as a mathematical discipline it definitely made me want to read more. I can read sheet music, play the trumpet with my dyslexia music was one of the things that came naturally, I understand very well how math comes into play. In music the rhythm, counting, scales, tone, pitch etc. All contribute to learning mathematics weather self taught or taught by others. Further progressing ones knowledge of music through any of the different periods has seemed to have benefit for the individual learning the material. On Pierre Boulez’s Structures understanding it’s form of serialism being difficult for some makes a lot of sense. I say this thinking it has much to do with how certain hertz/frequencies can effect us binaurally generating different reactions, expressions, moods, feelings. As an example besides music and the brain https://drjonesmusic.me/2018/09/03/music-and-the-brain-sep-3-9
    https://idoseraudio.com/ https://www.i-doser.com/index.html
    I find the topic of sounds, music, math and its effects on the brain very interesting.

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    1. Music history will change in a way that lessons will get shorter because as music evolves we will have a shorter frame period to learn the history from beginning to end.

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      1. I do believe that music education over time because music has changed overtime. it also can depend on the person who is teaching music education because they determine based off of what they learned over the years, what is important to teach. I also agree with what Tiara said we do have a shorter frame period to learn the history because while reading this articled I noticed that once music was the only thing that they learn but now as time evolves we don’t only learn about music, we have many other things that we have to learn.

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  43. This article is very helpful and tells us about the history of music. Music is something that’s very important especially today. When listening to different types of music, it’s makes me get in a mood when the words in some songs are great very informational and the beasts just hits my soul.

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  44. I found this article very interesting and informative. From this article, i learned a lot about the history of music, and it how music has helped shape our world just as much as math or science!

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  45. The hole things about the orphans left me kinda in a hard place. I get that they learned how to read and write music but that was only so they could have some type of value/be valuable. During this time people thought music was important in making a “complete human being”. Though both girls and boys learned music it meant different things. It’s crazy to me how a female who played was “marriage material”. It shouldn’t be that surprising, cause women had little to no rights at the time, but to measure someones value/worth is always hard-able. Did this come to mind for any other females? How do the males feel about being able to play music back then meant that you had potential for making a living? Do you agree or disagree to this way of thinking?

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  46. This was very eye opening and educational. Also I loved how it told about the evolution of music through the centuries. I was also quite surprised to know that through the ages 5-15, children ONLY learned music. I thought that in those days, people would’ve took education much seriously but I was proven wrong.

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  47. I also agree with the fact that children do learn much quicker and better through music. Even in elementary school, the first thing they teach children is a song about what they’re learning. I have also seen that when a child listen to a powerhouse vocalist when young, they adapt their vocal techniques and style without even knowing it.

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  48. It is very much true that music changes throughout time and each new time period in life different music is made and listened too . Its interesting how music also combines with other topics such as math and science . Sometimes I wonder if music from today would be played in the past would they like it and would they actually consider it music ?

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  49. This article explains the history of music and how it ties in with mathematics and science in some way, this information in particular surprised me a little. It was very interesting to learn when the article begins to talk about Quadrivium as a mathematical discipline, this point in the article really makes me want to read further on. Another thing that I found very interesting about this article is when they talk about how the kids were only being thought music which indicates how much values music had back in the day. i found this interesting because during this time I thought that they focus most on history than music. Women who played were being called “marriage material” and this showcased how much music in that time period can determine the type of person a women is. I think that when it comes to music not much has change when we are talking about how much values it can have to one person, I believe that now people value music much more because they may view it as an escape from reality.

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  50. Realistically children have the option to learn music at a tender age. This however, enabled them to utilize modern technology at their fingertips which was not available before. This method of music enhances children brain at a phenomenal level where by they could eat sleep touch feel breath music without much struggle. Those who are physically challenged eg. unable to hear and see there are different programs available for assisting the process of learning music in it’s entirety.

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  51. This article shows the the more intricate side of music, with it having plating a part in human development. The article also shows that music influenced science and other technical things through out history. It makes me wonder if music is still having that effect today.

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  52. Wow this article was very informative. I’ve always wanted to learn how to read music and still do. My preferred way of learning would be a conservatory, it allows aspiring musicians to focus on music and music only. When we focus on other subjects I feel like it takes some of our creativity away. When you’re allowed to eat, breathe and sleep music it pushes you more. But too much of something isn’t always good. Even if you have a natural born musical talent, I feel you should educate yourself more on music because if you don’t work on something you can lose it.

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  53. Yes BlameMusic. I believe that music changes with time and society. As time goes by, society changes and the taste for a new sound is in demand. When that sound comes, society follows that sound and that is when all of the music for the year, starts to sound alike.

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  54. @ BlameMusic, I believe that music changes with time and society. As time goes by, society changes and the taste for a new sound is in demand. When that sound comes, society follows that sound and that is when all of the music for the year, starts to sound alike.

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  55. I love the John Cage rules. I feel like if I adopted them myself I would probably be a more creative. I like rule number 8 that says do not try to create and analyze these are two different processes. It really relates to me because I analyze EVERYTHING which is part of the reason why I dont create because I’m always thinking too hard about something. One thing I found interesting was that most musician came from musicians that came from musicians. Which now that I think about it makes sense because look at Beyonce and Michael Jackson, they grew up in musical households and they are/were the best performers/musicians the world has ever seen.

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  56. Does anyone find it odd that in the conservatories they ONLY taught music? It stated that most kids came in from the ages of 5-15 I believe. And they’re parentless. I’m not sure if they’ve been to school or not but if I were a child back then I would’ve want to learn music and my ABCs and my 123s. I guess that just further speaks to the fact of how important music was to them.

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  57. For me, I feel that learning music through the conservatory way would be ideal for me. I say this because to be honest I am definitely one to procrastinate so if I wanted to do something I would do it for a few days and completely put it aside. Now if I am at a “school” where I have to do it, I would pretty much be better off at learning it a whole lot more. I’d be more motivated since there would be much more people around me that want to learn to play music as well. I’d be more interested, and it would really help me to work on my procrastination.

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  58. I feel like I am a “learned musician as far as playing instruments go 🤔 however I feel like naturally I have a good ear for listening and replicating different beats and harmonies.

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  59. This article was very informative on how learning and creating music has evolved over time. It went from being something taught only to orphans in conservatories, to being taught in major universities throughout the world. I found it interesting how music was placed in the quadrivium during the medieval period, which means people believed that music was just as important as math and science. Preferably, I would use hands on music making to help me learn how to make music.

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  60. I think my favorite time period to learn music would be the Romantic Era because it is how I view music today. I view music as something that should be done as a means of gaining pleasure and experience. I like the idea of people being able to create music for fun, rather than it solely being for money. I feel that by doing so, it channels inner creativity because a composer is not focused on the money they are depending on from a certain song. The Romantic Era encourages people to express themselves for fun and I think that without it, some of the best works wouldn’t have been created, due to people restricting themselves for money in the past.

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    1. The romantic era is also my favorite era because its sort of like a renaissance period where music wasn’t just a skill that belonged to the elite. A part of me believes that the music you create is a reflection of your environment. You will make music that represents you. Some of the best music has come from those who are not as economically and socially powerful but through their music you’re able to understand their struggle and views on life.

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  61. I learned an instrument and played it for a couple of years. I never thought about the meaning of the piece I’m playing until recently though. I always just played music just because it sounds good. All music pieces have meaning to it. I start to feel the meaning to the pieces I play more and more as I practice.

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  62. One of the things I found most interesting reading this passage, is that up until the romantic period music was considered something only common for the elites. I find that interesting because music is such a common thing to experience and create even when you don’t know you’re creating it. Even something as simple as a whistle can be considered music. I just think the ability to create music so commonly through everyday means is something that is not touched on in the passage but perhaps this same lack of knowledge and the different ways music can be created and how something is classified as music is something that people may have not known through out different the different eras of history,

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  63. I found this article to be very interesting on how music overtime grew stronger and the sense of importance it would have to to people overtime.

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